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        国民经济和社会发展计划2019年执行情况与2020年草案的报告(8)(中英对照)

        来源:可可英语 编辑:Villa ?  VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

        6) We will ensure energy security. We will make steady progress in developing the production, supply, storage, and sales systems of coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and petroleum reserve bases, and better regulate the operations of energy companies. We will improve our contingency plans in response to major changes in supply and demand at home and abroad, ensuring an overall balance of supply and demand and the stable operation of our markets. We will continue to support petroleum and natural gas exploration and exploitation, and press ahead with competitive trading of mining rights for oil- and gas-bearing zones. We will pick up the pace in developing oil and gas transmission pipelines and reserves projects, improve pipeline operation mechanisms, and encourage the opening up of pipeline facilities to all eligible users. We will push forward with the upgrading of coal-fired power plants, actively yet prudently develop hydropower, safely develop advanced nuclear power facilities, and maintain optimal development of wind and photovoltaic power, thus making non-fossil fuels the major contributor to energy consumption growth. We will refine the long-term mechanism to absorb electricity generated from renewable energy sources into power grids, and actively promote a new model for the absorption of electricity into local power grids. We will build trans-provincial and trans-regional power transmission routes in an orderly manner, and enhance energy transmission and adaptation capacities. We will continue the construction of the electricity emergency response system, and enhance our ability to respond in a timely fashion. We will support the independent and procedure-based operations of electricity trading agencies, build a national unified electricity market, lift restrictions on the generation and consumption of electricity by commercial consumers, and ensure effective implementation of trial reforms for raising the number of electricity distributors. We will deepen reform with regard to equipment manufacturing, designing, construction, and other competitive operations of power grid enterprises.

        六是着力保障能源安全。稳步推进煤炭、石油、天然气和电力产供储销体系和石油储备基地建设,加强煤电油气运行调节。健全国内外供需形势发生重大变化的应对预案,确保供需总体平衡和市场平稳运行。继续做好油气勘探开发工作,加快推进油气矿业权区块竞争出让。加快油气管网和储备工程建设,健全油气管网运营机制,推动管网设施公平开放。着力推动煤电改造升级,积极稳妥发展水电,安全发展先进核电,保持风电光伏发电合理发展,推动非化石能源成为增量主体。健全可再生能源电力消纳利用长效机制,积极推进就地就近消纳新模式。有序建设跨省跨区输电通道,提升能源系统输送和调节能力。持续推进电力应急体系建设,提高快速响应能力。推动电力交易机构独立规范运行,建设全国统一电力市场,全面放开经营性电力用户发用电计划,推动增量配电改革试点落地见效。深化电网企业装备制造、设计施工等竞争性业务改革。

        5. Staying committed to the innovation-driven development strategy and allowing technology and innovation to play a larger role in underpinning economic development. We will give full play to the role of innovation as the primary driver of development and the role of human resources as its primary resource, encourage the scientific spirit and the pursuit of fine workmanship, ensure that taking pride in one’s work becomes a social norm and seeking excellence is valued as a good work ethic, and step up efforts to turn China into a country of innovators.

        (五)坚定实施创新驱动发展战略,强化科技创新对经济发展支撑作用。充分发挥创新第一动力、人才第一资源作用,大力弘扬科学精神和工匠精神,营造劳动光荣的社会风尚和精益求精的敬业风气,加快建设创新型国家。

        1) We will work faster to achieve breakthroughs in core technologies in key fields. We will build a new type of system which, under the conditions of a socialist market economy, allows for the pooling of the nation’s resources in order to achieve breakthroughs in core technologies in key fields. We will facilitate the replacement and transitioning of major science and technology programs and speed up the implementation of major projects of the Sci-Tech Innovation 2030 Agenda. We will support the development of basic platforms for promoting wholly domestic manufacturing in a particular industry. We will refine systems and mechanisms for encouraging and supporting basic research and original innovation, develop new types of market-based R&D institutions, and encourage enterprises and other non-governmental sectors to increase R&D spending. We will work faster to help enterprises enhance their capacity for technological innovation, and work on including technological innovation in the assessment mechanisms of SOEs. We will step up efforts to build platforms for newly-developed major technological equipment, for R&D on new materials in short supply in China, and for key generic technologies. We will refine the policy for supporting the application of innovative products through government procurement. We will pool resources across multiple disciplines to crack tough research problems, and intensify study of the infection sources and transmission and pathogenic mechanisms of covid-19, while redoubling our efforts in drug and vaccine R&D and enhancing our emergency production capacity. We will take solid steps to develop bio-security infrastructure, and coordinate efforts to achieve technological breakthroughs in bio-security. We will work quickly to refine the national technological security management list.

        一是加快关键核心技术攻关。构建社会主义市场经济条件下关键核心技术攻关新型举国体制。开展科技重大专项梯次接续有关工作,加快组织实施科技创新2030-重大项目。支持构建面向全行业国产化应用的基础支撑平台。健全鼓励支持基础研究、原始创新的体制机制,发展市场化的新型研发机构,鼓励企业等社会力量增加投入。加快提升企业技术创新能力,研究将国有企业技术创新情况纳入考核机制。加快推进首台(套)重大技术装备、紧缺新材料研制和关键共性技术平台建设。完善支持创新产品应用的政府采购政策。综合多学科力量开展科研攻关,加强新冠肺炎传染源、传播致病机理等研究,加大药品、疫苗研发力度和应急生产能力建设。夯实生物安全基础设施建设,统筹做好生物安全科技攻关工作。加快完善国家技术安全管理清单制度。

        2) We will enhance our innovation capacity. We will draw up plans for a new phase of national scientific and technological development over the medium and long term, as well as development plans for national major science and technology infrastructure. We will strengthen basic research, original innovation, and innovation in disruptive technologies, accelerate construction of national laboratories and also restructure key national laboratories, and speed up the establishment of a basic platform for collaborative innovation in order to promote greater, more intensive interdisciplinary cooperation. We will move forward with the construction of science and technology innovation centers and comprehensive national science centers, and carry out well-conceived planning for projects concerning key science and technology infrastructure and science and education infrastructure, as well as for national industrial innovation centers, engineering research centers, technology innovation centers, manufacturing innovation centers, and supply chain technology and innovation centers. We will introduce an open competition mechanism to select the best candidates to lead key research projects. We will reform the mechanism for applying scientific and technological advances, ensure the smooth operation of innovation chains, and create an enabling environment for scientific research that encourages innovation and tolerates failure. We will formulate policies to support the industrial application of the results of major science and technology projects, and refine mechanisms and policies to support the development of innovative talent, and improve the category-specific human resource evaluation system. We will promote the innovation-driven development of national innovation demonstration areas and new- and high-tech development zones.

        二是加强创新能力建设。编制新一轮国家中长期科技发展规划和国家重大科技基础设施建设规划。加强基础研究和原始创新、颠覆性技术创新,加快组建国家实验室,重组国家重点实验室体系,加快建设跨学科、大协作、高强度的协同创新基础平台。推动科技创新中心和综合性国家科学中心建设,科学布局建设重大科技基础设施、科教基础设施和国家产业创新中心、工程研究中心、技术创新中心、制造业创新中心、供应链科创中心。实行重点项目攻关“揭榜挂帅”。改革科技成果转化机制,畅通创新链,营造鼓励创新宽容失败的科研环境。制定支持重大专项成果产业化配套政策,完善创新人才培养支持机制和政策,健全人才分类评价体系。提升国家自主创新示范区和高新区创新发展水平。

        3) We will promote high-quality innovation, business startups, and manufacturing. We will carry out a new round of pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation, and establish a technological innovation system in which enterprises are the main players, that is guided by the market and integrates the efforts of enterprises, universities, and research institutes. We will support integrated innovation efforts by businesses of all sizes and entities of all types. We will set up a group of innovation and business startups demonstration centers and build a series of platforms to support innovation and business startups. Dedicated campaigns will be carried out to develop innovation and business startups demonstration centers in enterprises and colleges, while systemic and institutional reforms regarding venture capital will be pushed forward. Furthermore, we will increase policy support for innovation and business startups service organizations such as incubators and maker spaces. We will increase assistance and support for enterprises which have suffered from the epidemic, increase the number of business startups eligible for guaranteed loans, relax counter-guarantee requirements for high-quality projects, and increase support for key groups in finding their niche when starting their businesses.

        三是推进创新创业创造高质量发展。实施新一轮全面创新改革试验。建立健全以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研深度融合的技术创新体系,支持大中小企业和各类主体融通创新。新建一批双创示范基地,实施一批双创支撑平台项目。实施示范基地“校企行”专项行动。加快推进创业投资领域的体制机制改革。研究加大对孵化器、众创空间等创新创业服务机构的政策支持力度。加大对受疫情影响企业帮扶力度,扩大创业担保贷款对象范围,对优质项目免除反担保要求,加大对重点群体创业场地支持力度。

        6. Advancing market-based reforms and further stimulating the vigor and dynamism of economic development. We will lose no time in introducing measures to deepen reforms, remove institutional obstacles that hold back development, and uphold and improve the basic socialist economic system.

        (六)持续推进市场化改革,进一步激发经济发展活力动力。抓紧出台进一步深化改革举措,着力破解制约发展的体制机制障碍,坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度。

        1) We will deepen reforms to streamline administration and delegate power, improve regulation, and upgrade services. We will faithfully enforce the Regulations on Improving the Business Environment, and summarize and publicize the experiences and practices of local governments in providing efficient services for businesses during epidemic prevention and control. We will refine the standards and methods for assessing the business environment, and regularly conduct such assessments in some of the cities at or above the prefecture level as well as in state-level new areas. We will encourage local governments to set up online platforms on which all the documents required for starting a business are processed, further simplifying business approval and registration procedures, and thereby moving all of these procedures online. We will relax restrictions on the registered place of operations for micro and small businesses and self-employed individuals, so as to make registration and operation more convenient for all types of people to start businesses and allow them to enjoy the benefits of supporting policies in a timely manner. We will make further progress with the reform to separate out the business license from the certificates required for starting a business. We will further reduce the number of items subject to administrative approval, filing, registration, annual review or verification by central or local authorities. We will advance reform of the investment approval system, establish a sound list-based system for investment approval, and improve the unified code system for investment projects. We will extend combined review and approval, and work on a commitment-based approval model, thereby increasing the efficiency with which a project goes from paper to reality. In accordance with the policy of rolling separate urban plans into one single plan, we will proceed with the reform to reduce the number of reviews and certifications required for land use planning, and integrate multiple surveys or inspections into a single one. We will accelerate revision of the Government Procurement Law and the Public Bidding Law. In the relevant agencies of market regulation, the oversight model of random inspection by randomly selected personnel and prompt release of inspection results will cover all business activities. With regard to the trading of public resources, we will promote the healthy, orderly development of the market, and introduce online trading across the board. In order to increase the efficiency of government services, we will push on with the Internet plus government services model. This includes establishing an integrated network of government services across the country, further reducing the procedural items and time required for filing and paying taxes, as well as integrating various registration systems for chattel and chattel mortgage. Meanwhile, we will vigorously promote the credibility commitments system, advance the initiative for granting loans based on good credit, and ensure that our social credit system becomes more law- and procedure-based. The reform to delink industry associations and chambers of commerce from the government will be essentially completed.

        一是深化“放管服”改革。全面落实《优化营商环境条例》,总结推广疫情防控期间各地高效服务企业的经验做法。完善营商环境评价指标体系和评价方法,在全国部分地级及以上城市、国家级新区定期开展中国营商环境评价。推动各地开通企业开办“一网通办”平台,进一步简化审批和登记手续,实现企业开办全程网上办理。放宽小微企业、个体工商户登记经营场所限制,便利各类创业者注册经营,及时享受扶持政策。深入推进“证照分离”改革。进一步压减中央和地方层面设定的行政许可以及备案、登记、年检、认定等事项。深入开展投资审批制度改革,建立健全投资审批清单制度,完善投资项目统一代码制度。推行并联审批,谋划承诺制改革,进一步提高项目落地效率。以“多规合一”为基础,深化规划用地“多审合一”“多证合一”改革,推进“多测合一”“多验合一”。加快推进政府采购法和招标投标法修订工作。在市场监管领域实现相关部门“双随机、一公开”监管全覆盖。促进公共资源交易市场健康有序发展,全面实施电子化交易。深入推进“互联网+政务服务”,加快打造全国政务服务“一张网”,进一步压减办税事项、纳税时间,整合各类动产登记和权利担保登记系统,不断提升政务服务效能。大力推行信用承诺制度,深入开展“信易贷”工作,提升社会信用体系建设法治化、规范化水平。基本完成行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩改革。

        2) We will build a high-standard market system. We will implement the guidelines on speeding up the improvement of the socialist market economy in the new era, and formulate an action plan for building a high-standard market system. We will develop sound institutions and mechanisms for the market-based allocation of production factors, and pilot comprehensive reforms in this regard. With regard to the issue of market access, we will implement the negative list system across the board, carry out trials to ease restrictions mainly in the service sector, and look into conducting online oversight and comprehensive assessment of business permits approval based on the negative list. We will urge local governments to keep track of hidden barriers to market access and give priority to dismantling these barriers for private enterprises, especially micro, small, and medium-sized ones. We will formulate the guidelines on competition policies, and revise and refine the rules for implementing the review system for fair competition. We will tighten the laws and regulations regarding equal protection of all types of property rights. We will cultivate a positive legal environment for the development of the private sector, and protect the legitimate property rights and management rights of private businesses and their owners. We will strengthen and improve enforcement of anti-monopoly and anti-unfair-competition laws, and strengthen the protection of commercial secrets. We will also set up a strong punitive damages system for intellectual property rights (IPR) infringements, intensify the enforcement of IPR laws, and step up the commercialization and application of patents.

        二是建设高标准市场体系。实施新时代加快完善社会主义市场经济体制的意见。制定实施高标准市场体系建设行动方案。构建更加完善的要素市场化配置体制机制,开展要素市场化配置综合改革试点。全面实施市场准入负面清单制度,以服务业为重点开展放宽市场准入试点,探索实施市场准入负面清单许可事项审批在线监管和综合评估。推动地方建立市场准入隐性壁垒台账,重点破除民营企业特别是中小微企业准入障碍。研究制定竞争政策的指导意见,修订完善公平竞争审查制度实施细则。强化对各类产权平等保护的法律规定。健全支持民营经济发展的法治环境,保护民营企业、民营企业家合法财产权和经营权。加强和改进反垄断和反不正当竞争执法,强化企业商业秘密保护。建立健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,加大知识产权执法力度,加强专利转化和应用。

        3) We will speed up reforms of state assets, SOEs, and key industries. We will formulate and implement a three-year action plan for SOE reform, step up improved distribution and structural adjustment of the state-owned sector of the economy, improve the modern corporate structure, and strive to create a system for state-owned assets oversight with the focus on state capital. In actively deepening mixed-ownership reform of SOEs, we will devote substantial efforts to the four groups of pilot reforms, and issue guidelines for this reform. We will work to increase both the scale and quality of market-based debt-to-equity swaps in more areas and guide financial asset investment companies in participating in the market-based reorganization of traditional industries. We will work quickly to put SOE retirees under community-based social insurance management, and essentially relieve SOEs of their obligations to run social programs and help them resolve other longstanding issues.

        三是加快国资国企和重点行业改革。制定实施国企改革三年行动方案,加快推动国有经济布局优化和结构调整,健全现代企业制度,着力形成以管资本为主的国有资产监管体制。积极深化混合所有制改革,做深做实四批试点,制定出台深化国有企业混合所有制改革的实施意见。推动市场化债转股增量扩面提质,引导金融资产投资公司参与推进传统产业市场化重组。加快推进国有企业退休人员社会化管理,基本完成剥离办社会职能和解决历史遗留问题。

        4) We will deepen reform of the fiscal, tax, financial, and pricing systems. We will move forward with the reform to define the respective fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local governments, improve local tax systems, take gradual steps to collect excise tax during a further downstream stage of the production-to-consumption process, and steadily hand over collection of such taxes to local governments. We will explore an approach of zero-based budgeting in order to make the structure of government spending flexible and adaptable. We will further raise the proportion of funds allocated to general public budgets from state capital operations budgets. In the financial sector, we will advance supply-side structural reform, optimize the composition of financing, improve the systems of financial institutions, markets, and products, and alter the benchmark for pricing existing floating-rate loans in an orderly manner. We will formulate a general plan for reforming the ChiNext stock market and piloting a registration-based IPO system, and further increase the scale of direct financing, particularly equity financing. In deepening pricing reform for public utilities, we will complete electricity transmission and distribution pricing reform during the second regulatory period, overhaul and regulate charges for water, electricity, gas, and heating in urban areas, reform the pricing mechanism for electricity from coal-fired power plants, encourage localities to introduce a policy of differentiated charges for urban household waste treatment where conditions allow, and push forward the reform of electricity and water prices. We will also improve the pricing mechanism of oil and gas pipeline transportation.

        四是深化财税、金融、价格体制改革。扎实推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革,健全地方税体系,逐步后移消费税征收环节并稳步下划地方。探索运用零基预算理念,打破支出固化僵化格局。进一步提高国有资本经营预算调入一般公共预算比例。深化金融供给侧结构性改革,优化融资结构和金融机构体系、市场体系、产品体系,有序推进存量浮动利率贷款定价基准转换。出台创业板改革并试点注册制总体实施方案,继续提高直接融资特别是股权融资比例。完成第二监管周期输配电价改革,深化公用事业价格改革,清理规范城镇供水、供电、供气、供暖行业收费,落实燃煤发电价格形成机制改革,鼓励有条件的地方探索推行城镇生活垃圾处理差别化收费政策,继续深化电价、水价改革。完善油气管网价格形成机制。

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        intensify [in'tensifai]

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        vt. 增强,强化,加剧,加厚
        vi. 强化

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        coordinate [kəu'ɔ:dneit,kəu'ɔ:dnit]

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        n. 同等的人物; (色调,图案,样式等)配套服装

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        stimulating

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        adj. 刺激的,令人兴奋的 动词stimulate的现

         
        regulation [.regju'leiʃən]

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        n. 规则,规章,管理
        adj. 规定的,官方

         
        extend [iks'tend]

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        quality ['kwɔliti]

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        adj. 高品质的

         
        venture ['ventʃə]

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        n. 冒险,风险,投机
        v. 尝试,谨慎地做,

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        revision [ri'viʒin]

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        n. 校订,修正,修订本,复习

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        reserve [ri'zə:v]

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        n. 预备品,贮存,候补
        n. 克制,含蓄

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